Coco peat is lignocellulosic in nature, brown colored, lightweight corky dust; particle size varies from 100-300 microns similar to peat moss. It has a porous structure. The pores are responsible for allowing good aeration around the roots of plants and retain water content in the pores for rewetting when dry.
Coco peat has readily available nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium suitable for plant growth. The organic matter content of soil/substrate is an indicator to its fertility and nutrient availability and Coco peat has a higher organic matter content as compared to peat mass. This leads to improvement in plant growth and production when Coco peat is added to the soil.
Chemical analysis reveals that Coco peat contains three major constituents-cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin. Cellulose is a polymeric chain of anhydrous glucose units and exists mainly in crystalline form. Hemi cellulose is made up of mixed polymers of various pentose and hexose sugars and is amorphous in nature. Lignin is an amorphous polymer of phenyl propane, which surrounds the cellulose in the cell wall. Lignin exists in situ as large molecular weight component but indefinite in size.