The Coco peat is light weight, elastic, granular material having uniform, cylindrical opened cells, with foam like structure. It acts as a shock absorbed for the nut in the coconut fruit during its fall from heights of 50-60 feet.
Due to its porosity, it also gives buoyancy to the coconut fruit during its transport in water while falling from the tree. The coir fibers are embedded in the matrix of Coco peat and during the extraction of coir fibers nearly the double the quantity of Coco peat is obtained.
In coir sector, the dust from coconut husk after extraction of fiber is removed immediately as waste material. Sometimes it creates problems on disposal and deposit, because it takes up a huge area and the expense involved is very high.
Besides being rich in lignin, the Coco peat has also a very high water holding capacity up to 800% and has been identified as a suitable substitute for the peat which is partially carbonized vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs (an area of soft, naturally waterlogged ground), and is used as a soil conditioner /fertilizer.
The availability of peat, this natural resource is depleting very fast due to its extensive mining in the European countries, and processed Coco peat is replacing peat moss as a soil substitute in many plant nurseries and commercial horticulture in the world over.
The fact that the addition of Coco peat to soil could bring about favorable changes to drainage, mulching, rooting, reconditioning and seed germination has been reported as early as 1929. Its use in sandy soil is considered beneficial because of its high water holding capacity.